Knowledge of heat treatment for food
Features of pulverization"

Features and benefits of pulverization

Grinding is a processing method of "crushing and pulverizing" as it is in various, but it is one of the processing methods frequently used in food processing field.
I would like to explain mainly about crushing in the food industry.
Powder is familiar, powdery seasonings such as wheat flour, sugar, salt, spices such as pepper and chilli, etc., you can see various powders by looking into the kitchen.
Also coffee beans to be used when putting in regular coffee will be crushed into powder and then extracted and drunk.
The culture of powder or powder broadens the range of cooking in our diet and processing technology called pulverization is one of technologies that enrich our lives.

What is pulverizing?
Grinding is a somewhat difficult way of saying "it is a method of reducing the size of particles by adding mechanical energy to individual particles, creating a new surface and increasing the surface area".
Particles obtained by grinding are called pulverized (coarse ground) or powder (or fine powder) depending on the size.
  • Pulverized product (coarse ground product): The taste and texture of the foodstuff can be left. The keeping capacity of the flavor is improved by the small surface area.
  • Powder (fine powder): It is possible to improve digestion and absorption of foodstuffs. Moreover, it can be used for various cooking.
In pulverization, it is possible to control the size of the powder or particle that is formed, depending on the force applied to the raw material, how to apply the force, and the time during which the force is applied.
Pulverization is roughly divided into "coarse pulverization" and "fine pulverization", but in the food industry it is properly used depending on how the characteristics of pulverized materials are used.


Machine for pulverizing?
The machine to pulverize is a crusher, but it is a machine that aligns particle sizes to some extent by adding physical forces such as friction and compression to raw materials.
On the other hand, the purpose of pulverization in the food industry is diverse, and the mechanism of the crusher changes according to the purpose and application of powder, so the type of crusher is also diverse.
Powders, which are finished products, are large in particle size and small in size, but are in various sizes, and the degree of crushing is controlled depending on how pulverized materials are used.
  • Coarse pulverizer: crush raw material into lump of several millimeters
  • Midium pulverizer: pulverize particles of pulverized material to about 150 μm to 75 μm
  • Fine grinding machine: pulverize particles of pulverized material to about 20 μm to 50 μm
  • Ultrafine grinding machine: grinding particles of pulverized material to 20 μm or less


What is pulverization according to purpose?
Pulverized products produced by grinding in the food industry are roughly divided into two types: "coarse pulverization" in which the raw material is roughly pulverized and "fine pulverization" in which the raw material is pulverized to a powder of 150 μm or less. Coarse crushing is used when you want to utilize the nutrients of ingredients while keeping the chewy ingredients of ingredients like nuts, coffee and spices, or if you want to use the fragrance ingredients in the ingredients. On the other hand, fine powder is used to efficiently utilize the nutrients and tastes of raw materials rather than fragrance ingredients, and to expand the range of processability when used for cooking.


●Coarse pulverizer
Coarse pulverizing has the merit of leaving a texture of the raw material and reducing the speed at which the scent component decreases by reducing the surface area compared with fine powder.
For example, coarse pulverized products such as nuts used as cookies or used as toppings, coffee beans used for drip coffee, barley used for tea packs of barley tea, spices such as chilli, shichi pepper and pepper etc. It is being used.
When sticking to fragrance ingredients thoroughly, so that coarse pulverizering can be done immediately before use, mills for pulverizing are sold as home cookware.
It may also be used as a pretreatment when it is difficult to directly make it into a fine powder.
For example, there are also cases that is used for the purpose of facilitating charging into a pulverizer for coarse pulverization to produce fine powder, or for removing unnecessary substances such as skin and germ which may impair the flavor of the powder of the final product.


●Fine grinding
When pulverizing to fine powder, it can not deny the scattering of volatile components during storage due to the large surface area.
However, it can be said that digestion and absorption when eating is improved, that is, being able to efficiently utilize the nutrients of raw materials can be a big merit.
In addition, it becomes easier to mix powder with each other and it becomes a smooth slurry when mixed with water "It becomes possible to use for various cooking.


Specific examples of benefits of using grinding process
Coarse pulverized materials and powders are indispensable in our lives.
Overlooking the kitchen, you can see various crushed materials and powders such as spices such as pepper and red pepper, coffee beans used as luxury goods like drip coffee, powder for cooking such as flour and potato starch .
What is the meaning of control of the size of pulverized material, that is, what merit is there?
What are the merits of making small powder of particles?
I will specifically introduce an example of that.


It is rare to use wheat as grain, or as wheat grain without hulls and embryos, but it is rarely used as a food material, but it can be used as raw material for bread, donuts or cookies by making it into flour by crushing process, okonomiyaki You can also make it into Takoyaki fabric, or to bechamel sauce or cream sauce as the basis for gratin and cream croquettes.
Also, by mixing the rice flour described above, it is also possible to impart a feeling of elasticity feeling to bread and donuts, which are foods using flour.


●Rice flour
Add water to milled rice with the epidermis and germ of rice removed, that is, rice will be "Gohan" when heat treated.
Gohan can be delicious as a Japanese staple food at Gohan, but rice flour milled into fine powder by milling rice could be processed into totally different food such as Vietnamese Food and Rice Paper used for Raw Spring Roll.
Usage changes by changing the type of rice to be used, rice flour is also used for Japanese confection such as Joshin-powder and Karukan-powder using Uruchi rice, white rice ball, rice powder, Domyoji-powder, Kanbai-powder, fine dust powder using glutinous rice.
It is also possible to change the texture during use by mixing with other powder raw materials such as tapioca powder and potato starch.
Also, rice flour containing no protein, which is made from rice starch, is expected as a raw material for rice milk for anti allergies and rice syrup as diet food.


●Coffee beans
Coffee beans used to extract coffee as a beverage are one of the pulverized materials representing coarse pulverizing.
In order to extract coffee from coffee beans, it is necessary to increase extraction efficiency by increasing the surface area.
However, if attention is focused only on the extraction efficiency, if the particles become too small, there is a possibility that taste contained in coffee beans will be extracted and the taste will be reduced.
In other words, the pulverizing of coffee beans is important to control ideal pulverizing that can suppress taste and extract taste firmly.
Also, if the pulverized material is too fine, the filter may be clogged in filtration for removing solids at the end of extraction, so it is impossible to use crushed powder until it becomes micro powder.


●Red peppers
For peppers as a spice in a small bottle, coarse crushed material is used. By increasing the surface area by grinding, capsaicin in chili peppers tends to come in contact with the taste, which makes it harder.
However, if it becomes a fine powder and the surface area becomes too large, you will feel strong spicy immediately after putting it in the mouth.
In other words, it means that spicy is controlled by coarse pulverization.
Although it may be be felt that it is painful if it is crushed in the mouth by chewing, you could expect that coarse crushed chill gives moderate hotness to cooking and capsaicin absorbed from gastrointestinal tract improves blood circulation.
On the other hand, in case of pursuit of hotness it can be crushed to a level called powder and used as a paste-like seasoning.
Although it is not edible, in cases where extract is used as a hot spreading powder, it may be more convenient to have chili powder as a fine powder.


Pepper is a classic spice commonly used for ramen and soup dishes.
However, when you look closely at the product, two types of coarse ground pepper and regular pepper are on sale.
Pepper is also a seasoning to enjoy spicy and fragrance, you can add scent to cook by adding coarse ground pepper just before the end of cooking.
Although fragrance remains in finely crushed pepper, scent is weaker than coarse ground pepper.
People who are committed to the scent of pepper are kept as grain pepper and some people use fragrance by milling at the time of use.


It is a kind of green tea, which is called original green tea which is used in the tea ceremony when grinding Tencha with a mortar.
Green tea is a beverage featuring astringency and bitterness, but it is characterized by being able to add special sweetness derived from tea leaves by making it Matcha.
Matcha is said to be a high-class image, but in recent years powder tea which was made into powder using a fine grinding machine is also recognized as Matcha.
Thanks to that, it is possible to mix it with various foods such as Japanese confectionery and confectionery or soft cream.